blog about OSXA, an OSGi framework without the module layer. Over the years, this idea kept intriguing me and discussed it with many but never found the time to work on it. Unfortunately, OSXA seems to be no longer active (the web site appears to be in zombie state) but thanks to Karl Pauls this idea has given a new lease. Last week, at the (fantastic as usual) EclipseCon/OSGi DevCon, he surprised me with an implementation of OSGi Lite. OSGi Lite is OSGi without the module layer; he based his implementation on Apache Felix.
OSGi without modules is so interesting because it significantly simplifies the migration to the service layer from existing (web) applications. Services are for me the key innovation in OSGi; the module layer was only a necessity to make that service layer work. Playing with OSGi Lite I realized that in a way we've been trying to convince the market to go OSGi without a good transition model. We promised all those goodies but then adopters had to basically refactor their whole code base before they could benefit from these goodies. Not particularly good marketing.
The primary transition problem is that today class loader hacks are prevalent in Java code. These hacks make it appear that "modules" are decoupled from each other. For example, the JVM's Factories pervasively use a multitude of class loading hacks to desperately find an implementation for an interface; the Service Loader model supposed to improve the class loading hacks even hard codes the class loader in its API. Though an extension mechanism might be based on class loaders a cohesive design should not expose this implementation detail in the API as the Service Loader does.
All these class loading hacks are the antithesis of modularity because they mandate the visibility of implementation classes across module boundaries. Your POJO might look superficially like a POJO but in classic Java someone in your code base must violate module boundaries to get an implementation. You can try to hide in some Spring XML or Guice module but it is inevitable that someone needs global visibility. This is the exact problem addressed by the OSGi service layer. In OSGi, the only one knowing the implementation class for a service is the module that owns it, as it is supposed to be. It is even better, the module can register instances with context instead of having to revert to statics to provide context.
However, to be able to reap the wonderful benefits of the service layer one has to remove all the class loading hacks and that is usually a big change. Big changes in an active source base are usually not such a brilliant idea. Therefore: meet OSGi Lite.
Karl's OSGi Lite implementation is based on Apache Felix, ensuring good fidelity with a real OSGi framework. His implementation runs in any standard Java environment: class path, WAR files, wherever your current Java is running because it never touches a class loader. Running an OSGi application is as easy as running the main method in PojoSR while the class path contains the "bundles". PojoSR will scan the JARs on the class path and treat each JAR as a bundle regardless if it is a bundle or not. If the JAR is a bundle and contains a Bundle Activator then this is activated. If you want to own the main method, you can initialize the OSGi Lite subsystem yourself using the META-INF/services model.
It is quite surprising how many bundles actually work out of the box: Declarative Services, the shell, etc. all work well with a bit of twiddling. With many bundles the only problem is the Bundle-ClassPath, this obviously does not work. However, it is trivial with bnd to unroll the bundle class path with the @ operator. For Felix's declarative services I had to do unroll the Bundle Class Path because it included the KXML parser.
To demo OSGi Lite, I wanted to port an existing application to OSGi to show how easy it has become.
After "one of those days" where every open source project I tried to build failed horribly(SpringSource Pet Store, Sun's Pet Store, some GWT Pet Store, and others). After half a day of horror I ended up with the Google Web Tookit (GWT) standard sample application. GWT provides an Ajax based GUI environment combined with a Remote Procedure Call (RPC) model. The demo application sends a message to a GreetingService (!) and displays the result in a dialog.
The standard GWT GreetingService is definitely not a POJO because it must extend the RemoteServlet class. From a modularity point of view this is bad, really bad. Now we have OSGi Lite we can create a Dispatching Servlet bundle that decouples the Greeting Service POJO from the web environment. The Dispatching servlet creates the OSGi Lite runtime with Karl's code when it is first constructed. It then receives all the GWT requests and then uses the service name, which is embedded in the request, to find the service in the OSGi registry. It therefore is not coupled to any service code at all, it only knows the standard GWT classes. The next stage was to create a bundle that provided the Greeting Service. Well, with bnd's annotations and bndtools that was a snap. These two bundles then had to be placed in the WEB-INF/lib directory to become part of the WAR's class path.
To test this I used the GWT Eclipse plugin, this provides an environment based on Jetty to run a directory that looks like a WAR. This was a bit painful because I had to copy the bundles to the lib directory whenever I made changes and for some reason all the XML and hard coded path names make this stuff incredibly fragile and error prone. I really missed the standard dynamic run environment from bndtools! But I got it to work. I then created a war file and ran it on AWS Beanstalk, which worked like a charm (might be gone by the time you read this because it costs money to run there). You can find the workspace for this code at github, see the aQute.gwt.war project.
What did we achieve? From a modularity point of view the code has been significantly cleaned up. We could turn the Greeting Service implementation into a real POJO that no external dependencies while the old one was heavily coupled to the servlet API and GWT's implementation. Now, the service is deployed as a separate bundle and can easily be substituted. Also in this case the service registry demonstrates the shining power of the µservice model!
OSGi Lite provides 80% of the power of OSGi in a completely non-intrusive way. It allows any application build in Java to reap the benefits of increased modularity without first having to rid an existing code base of any of its class loader hacks; all these hacks just keep working as they used to work because everything runs in a single class loader.
The drawback is is that OSGi Lite does not enforce module boundaries and obviously does not allow multiple versions of the same package, nor does it support the Bundle-ClassPath. However, with OSGi Lite applications can move to the µservice model with virtually no complexity. The µservice model can then be used to get rid of the class loading hacks over time, after which it will be really easy to move to OSGi and get side by side versioning and real module boundaries.
It would be interesting if the OSGi Alliance would standardize this OSGi Lite model. So from these experiences I've written an OSGi Request for Proposal (RFP) and submitted for discussion next week in Austin. Though a standard is not absolutely needed to start playing with OSGi Lite now Karl has implemented it, it would be better if the model was officially condoned by the OSGi Alliance. It could be used without coupling to a particular implementation.
I think this could be one of the biggest enablers for the OSGi model ever. If you're interested, check out the code and provide feedback!
Karl Pauls' code: http://code.google.com/p/pojosr/
The GWT project: https://github.com/bnd/aQute
P.S. All opinions in this blog are mine and obviously not necessarily shared by the OSGi Alliance.